Organic compound: a wide variety, a large number (known to have about 30000000 kinds, and it is still growing at a rate of millions of species per year).But the components are less C, H, O, N, P, S, X (halogen: F, Cl, Br, I), etc..
Structure characteristics of organic compund 1：Bonding characteristics of carbon atoms in organic compounds.
The outermost layer of the carbon atom has 4 electrons, which is not easy to lose or gain electrons to form a cation or anion. Carbon atoms formed by covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and other forms of non covalent compounds.Due to the characteristics of carbon atoms bond,each carbon atom can not only form 4 covalent bonds with the hydrogen atom or the other atom, but also can be combined with the covalent bond.Carbon atoms can not only form a stable bond, also can form a stable double or triple bond.Many carbon atoms can be combined with each other to grow short carbon chain, carbon chain can also be a chain, but also can be combined into carbon ring, carbon chain and carbon ring can also be combined with each other.
Structure characteristics of organic compund 2：Isomers of organic compounds
Compounds have the same molecular formula,but the structure is different, resulting in the nature of the difference, this phenomenon is called the same sub - heterogeneity.The compounds with the same isomers are isomers. In organic compounds, when the number of carbon atoms increases, the number of isomers is more. The phenomenon of isomers is very common in organic matter, which is also a very large number of organic compounds in nature.
Chemical property of organic compund:
(2) stability is poor (organic compounds are often affected by temperature, bacteria, air or light).
(3) the reaction rate is slow
(4) the product of the reaction is complex.
Overall, organic compound can be burned, except for a few. Compared with inorganic materials, their thermal stability is poor, and the electrolyte is easy to be heated.The melting point of organic matter is low, it is generally not more than 400.