Knowledge point of common organic compounds：Research methods of common organic compounds
Teaching objectives of common organic compounds:
Know how to study the steps and methods of the organic compounds.
master the common methods of separation and purification of organic compounds.
master the basic skills of distillation, recrystallization and extraction experiments.
Teaching focus of common organic compounds:A common method for the separation and purification of organic compounds.
Difficult points of common organic compounds:A common method for the separation and purification of organic compounds.
1,Preview of common organic compounds:
Extraction of organic compounds from natural resources,first of all, we got the crude product containing organic matter. In plant production, laboratory synthesis of organic compounds can not directly get the pure, the resulting is often mixed with raw materials, or reaction by-products, such as crude product. Therefore, it must be separated and purified to obtain pure product. If we want to identify and study the structure and properties of the unknown organic matter, we must get a more pure organic matter.
2,Knowledge explanation of common organic compounds:
1)General steps in the study of organic matter
Separation, purification, analysis and elemental quantitative determination of relative molecular mass, molecular formula to determine pop analysis to determine the structure.
2)Separation and purification of organic compounds
Test 1: distillation
Definition: the boiling point of each component in the mixture liquid or liquid solid system is different, so that the low boiling point component is evaporated, and then condensed to separate the whole process of the component.
Usage: a common method for separating and purifying boiling point different liquid organic matter. Conditions of application: a small amount of impurities, the organic matter has a thermal stability, and the boiling point of the difference between the impurities larger (greater than 30 degrees Celsius).
Test 2: crystallization and recrystallization
Definition: in order to obtain a higher purity of the crystal, the precipitation of the crystal with a suitable solvent re dissolution, recrystallization operation of the common types of recrystallization
Test 3: extraction
(1) the instrument used: beaker, funnel, funnel. (2) extraction: the solution in immiscible solvent solubility of different, with a solvent to solute from it and another kind of solvent composition of solution extracted, the former known as the extractant, the solubility of solute in the extractant in bigger.